Citation and Reference Guidelines

KULA: Knowledge Creation, Dissemination, and Preservation Studies uses the Chicago Manual of Style author-date citation system. Common forms of citation are included below.

In-Text Citations

  • Every use of information from other sources must be cited in the text.
  • Do not include URLs in in-text citations. Cite the author or webpage title in text and include all details, including the URL, in the references list.
  • If the author’s name is mentioned in the running text, insert the year of publication in parentheses after the name. E.g., Garfield (2019) and Sanchez (2016) argue that…
  • If the author’s name is not mentioned in the running text, insert the author’s surname and the year of publication, not separated by a comma, after the quotation or paraphrase. Multiple citations should be separated by a semi-colon and should follow alphabetical order. E.g., Recent studies contradict earlier findings (Garfield 2019; Sanchez 2018).
  • If a source has three or fewer co-authors, list all the authors’ names. If a source has four or more co-authors, insert “et al.” after the first author’s name. Do not add a comma before “et al.” E.g., (Rogers, Goldberg, and Layton 2008) or (Rogers et al. 2008).
  • If you are citing multiple sources by the same author from the same year, add a lowercase letter, beginning with “a,” after the year of publication of the first cited source. Do not insert a space between the year and the lowercase letter. E.g., (Lahiri 2013a; Lahiri 2013b).
  • If you are citing specific pages, add the page number(s) after the year, preceded by a comma. If you are citing multiple pages, use an en dash to connect the numbers in the page range. For rules on abbreviating inclusive numbers, see 9.61 of The Chicago Manual of Style. E.g., (Lutz 2004, 36; Chu 2013, 163–64).
  • If you are citing a note, add a lowercase n and the number of the note after the page number, with no spaces. E.g., (Hyman 1993, 295n2).
  • If you are citing an entire volume rather than specific page numbers, use vol. E.g., (Lui 2011, vol. 1).
  • If you are citing a specific page from a particular volume, include the volume number, followed by a colon, then the page number. E.g., (Lui 2011, 1:208).
  • For publications authored and published by organizations, use the short form of the organization’s name or its acronym instead of its full name in the citation. E.g., (WHO 2000) rather than (World Health Organization 2000).
  • When citing knowledge learned from Indigenous Elders, Old Ones, and Knowledge Keepers, contextual information should always be provided in text about where the knowledge being cited comes from. It is at the discretion of the author, who should make this decision on a case-by-case basis, in consultation with the Knowledge Keeper they are citing and following community Protocols, to include in-text citations and a reference list entry. If authors do include an in-text the citation, we recommend the following format: (Name, short description of knowledge shared/method of knowledge sharing, date).


Please use footnotes. If the note includes a reference, full bibliographic details should be given the first time a work is cited; subsequent citations of the same reference can be abbreviated (see 14.19 of The Chicago Manual of Style). All references cited in notes should be listed in the references list at the end of the paper.

Reference List

  • All works cited in the text, including works cited only in notes (not in the main text), should be included in the References. The References should appear at the very end of the submission.
  • References should be listed alphabetically according to authors’ surnames.
  • List up to ten authors in a reference list entry. If there are more than ten authors, list seven names followed by et al.
  • DOIs should be included for all references if available.
  • If the city of publication may be confused with another city of the same name, add the two-letter postal code abbreviation for the state or province (unless the publisher’s name clarifies this by, for example, including the name of the state).
  • Omit The, Company/Co., and abbreviations such as Inc. and Ltd. from a publisher’s name. (See 14.134 of The Chicago Manual of Style.)



Last name, First name. Year. Title. city of publication: Publisher.

Caswell, Michelle. 2014. Archiving the Unspeakable: Silence, Memory, and the Photographic Record in Cambodia. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.


Last name, First name. (initial year of publication) Year of reprint. Title. city of publication: Publisher.


Deleuze, Gilles, and Felix Guattari. 1987. A Thousand Plateaus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia. Translated by Brian Massumi. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.


Editor Last name, First name, ed. Year. volume Title. city of publication: Publisher.

Sillitoe, Paul, Alan Bicker, and Johan Pottier, eds. 2002. Participating in Development: Approaches to Indigenous Knowledge. New York: Routledge.


Last name, First name. Year. “Chapter Title.” In [Book Title], edited by [Editor Name], Page range, city of publication: Publisher. URL or database used to access source. (if accessed online)

Muñoz, Trevor. 2016. “Recovering a Humanist Librarianship through Digital Humanities.” In Laying the Foundation: Digital Humanities in Academic Libraries, edited by John W. White and Heather Gilbert, 3–14. Purdue University Press. Project MUSE.


Last name, First name. Year. Title. Translated by [name]. city of publication: Publisher.

Jaeggy, Fleur. 1991. Sweet Days of Discipline. Translated by Tim Parks. London: New Directions. 


Follow the same format for print book entries and add a URL or the name of the database through which you accessed the source.


Last name, First name. Year. “Article title.” Journal titleVolume (issue number): Page range. URL (preferably a DOI) or database used to access source. (if accessed online)

Renn, Jürgen. 2015. “From the History of Science to the History of Knowledge – and Back.” Centaurus: An International Journal of the History of Science and its Cultural Aspects 57 (1): 37–53.


Last name, First name. Year. “Article title.” Newspaper/magazine title, Date. URL or database used to access source. (if accessed online)

Lalami, Laila. 2020. “Bright Stars: The Unfulfilled Promise of American Citizenship.” Harper’s, April.


Interviewee last name, first name. Year. “Interview title.” Interview by [name]. Program/ organ title, channel (if applicable), Date. Type of interview (if audio or video), duration (if audio or video). URL. (if accessed online)

Wegman, Jesse. 2020. “Electoral College ‘Not Carved in Stone:’ Author Advocates Rethinking How We Vote.” Interview by Terry Gross. Fresh Air, NPR, March 18. Audio, 43:12.


Organization. Year. “Title.” Series/publication number. Retrieved from [Website]. (if online).

World Bank. 2008. “Textbooks and school library provision in secondary education in Sub-Saharan Africa.” World Bank Working Paper No. 126. Africa Human Development Series. Retrieved from EBL database.


Last name, First name. Year. “Title.” PhD diss., University name.

Sheil, Christine. 2016. “Scottish Gaelic Clefts: Syntax, Semantics and Pragmatics.” PhD diss., University of California, Berkeley.


Author/Organization. Year. “Title.” date of publication/revision (if not available, use n.d. in lowercase and include date Accessed). URL.

Modern Language Association. 2020. “Membership.”


Contextual information should always be provided in text about knowledge that comes from Indigenous Elders, Old Ones, and Knowledge Keepers. Whether authors include entries in their references list is at their discretion and should be decided on a case-by-case basis in consultation with the Knowledge Keeper they are citing and in conjunction with community Protocols.

If authors do include an entry in the references list, we recommend using a citation format based on the ones that Chicago has established for unpublished interviews, one that combines the Notes and Bibliography format and the Author-Date format.

This format is intended to be flexible. Not all of this information is mandatory, and the order in which it appears can be variable. The information included in the citation—and the order in which it appears (e.g., if the person being cited would like their nation listed before their name)—should be agreed upon in consultation with the Elder, Old One, or Knowledge Keeper and should follow the community’s Protocols.

Last Name, First Name. Other identifying information that Elder, Old One, Knowledge Keeper would like included (additional names, clan, Nation/community). Description of knowledge shared, lineage of knowledge (both how Elder, Old One, Knowledge Keeper gained knowledge and how they shared with author), method of teaching (e.g., shared, visit, in sweat). Place and date (month day, year)/date range (e.g., month-month, year) of knowledge sharing.

Citation practices for Indigenous knowledge may differ based on location. For example, the guide for referencing Indigenous Material created by Danièle Hromek and Sophie Herbert at the University of Technology Sydney Library explains that land and language are important elements of a citation for Indigenous art, objects, and images in Australia: “References to Indigenous artworks, designs, objects, or images, need to note the Nation or Country and/or language group of the Indigenous person or community who created them as well as where the Country is located.” They point out that “sometimes this is not known, in which case we use ‘unrecorded location.’”

Additionally, Nathan Sentance, a Wiradjuri man from the Mowgee clan who grew up in Darkinjung Country, NSW, works as a project officer in First Nations programming at the Australian Museum, and is a member of the Indigenous Archive Collective, points out on his blog, Archival Decolonist, that “historically much of First Nations knowledges, languages, history, etc has been recorded by Non-Indigenous authors without proper attribution to communities that this information comes from.” Consequently, he has suggested citation formats for APA style that identify when an author is non-Indigenous.

If you are citing a non-Indigenous author who has written about Indigenous knowledge, Sentance advises that you should include in your citation the names of any Indigenous knowledge holders and Indigenous Nations/Clans/Communities that the non-Indigenous author(s) references or applies knowledge from. If no Indigenous knowledge holders or Nations/Clans/Communities are identified by name, you should record this omission as part of your citation. 

Finally, if a non-Indigenous author has, as Sentance states, “conducted research on First Nations land which heavily interacts with the land,” the in-text citation and reference should list the Nation/Clan/Community Country first.