Introducing Massively Open Online Papers (MOOPs)


  • Jonathan P. Tennant IGDORE
  • Natalia Bielczyk Stichting Solaris Onderzoek en Ontwikkeling, Nijmegen
  • Bastian Greshake Tzovaras Center for Research and Interdisciplinarity (CRI), Université de Paris, INSERM U1284
  • Paola Masuzzo IGDORE
  • Tobias Steiner Community-led Open Publication Infrastructures for Monographs (COPIM), Centre for Postdigital Cultures, Coventry University



Distributed management, Collaboration, Networking, Open Science


An enormous wealth of digital tools now exists for collaborating on scholarly research projects. In particular, it is now possible to collaboratively author research articles in an openly participatory and dynamic format. Here we describe and provide recommendations for a more open process of digital collaboration, and discuss the potential issues and pitfalls that come with managing large and diverse authoring communities. We summarize our personal experiences in a form of ‘ten simple recommendations’. Typically, these collaborative, online projects lead to the production of what we here introduce as Massively Open Online Papers (MOOPs). We consider a MOOP to be distinct from a ‘traditional’ collaborative article in that it is defined by an openly participatory process, not bound within the constraints of a predefined contributors list. This is a method of organised creativity designed for the efficient generation and capture of ideas in order to produce new knowledge. Given the diversity of potential authors and projects that can be brought into this process, we do not expect that these tips will address every possible project. Rather, these tips are based on our own experiences and will be useful when different groups and communities can uptake different elements into their own workflows. We believe that creating inclusive, interdisciplinary, and dynamic environments is ultimately good for science, providing a way to exchange knowledge and ideas as a community. We hope that these Recommendations will prove useful for others who might wish to explore this space.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...


Bielczyk, Natalia, Ayaka Ando, AmanPreet Badhwar, Chiara Caldinelli, Mengxia Gao, Amelie Haugg, Leanna Hernandez, Kaori Ito, Daniel Kessler, and Daniel Lurie. January 2019. “Effective Self-Management for Early Career Researchers in the Natural Sciences.” Working paper, OHBM Student and Postdoc Special Interest Group. DOI:

Bik, Holly M., and Miriam C. Goldstein. 2013. “An Introduction to Social Media for Scientists.” PLOS Biology 11(4): e1001535. DOI:

Bosman, Jeroen, and Bianca Kramer. 2015. “101 Innovations in Scholarly Communication: How Researchers Are Getting to Grip with the Myriad of New Tools.” Impact of Social Sciences (blog), LSE Blogs. November 11, 2015.

Brand, Amy, Liz Allen, Micah Altman, Marjorie Hlava, and Jo Scott. 2015. “Beyond Authorship: Attribution, Contribution, Collaboration, and Credit.” Learned Publishing 28(2): 151–55. DOI:

Cheruvelil, Kendra S., Patricia A. Soranno, Kathleen C. Weathers, Paul C. Hanson, Simon J. Goring, Christopher T. Filstrup, and Emily K. Read. 2014. “Creating and Maintaining High-Performing Collaborative Research Teams: The Importance of Diversity and Interpersonal Skills.” Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 12(1): 31–38. DOI:

Dall’Olio, Giovanni M., Jacopo Marino, Michael Schubert, Kevin L. Keys, Melanie I. Stefan, Colin S. Gillespie, Pierre Poulain, et al. 2011. “Ten Simple Rules for Getting Help from Online Scientific Communities.” PLOS Computational Biology 7(9): e1002202. DOI:

Evans, Teresa M., Lindsay Bira, Jazmin Beltran Gastelum, L. Todd Weiss, and Nathan L. Vanderford. 2018. “Evidence for a Mental Health Crisis in Graduate Education.” Nature Biotechnology 36(March): 282–84. DOI:

Frassl, Marieke A., David P. Hamilton, Blaize A. Denfeld, Elvira de Eyto, Stephanie E. Hampton, Philipp S. Keller, Sapna Sharma, et al. 2018. “Ten Simple Rules for Collaboratively Writing a Multi-Authored Paper.” PLOS Computational Biology 14(11): e1006508. DOI:

Greenhow, Christine, and Benjamin Gleason. 2014. “Social Scholarship: Reconsidering Scholarly Practices in the Age of Social Media.” British Journal of Educational Technology 45(3): 392–402. DOI:

Greshake Tzovaras, Bastian, Misha Angrist, Kevin Arvai, Mairi Dulaney, Vero Estrada-Galiñanes, Beau Gunderson, Tim Head, et al. 2019. “Open Humans: A Platform for Participant-Centered Research and Personal Data Exploration.” GigaScience 8(6). DOI:

Grijs, Richard de. 2015. “Ten Simple Rules for Establishing International Research Collaborations.” PLOS Computational Biology 11(10): e1004311. DOI:

Himmelstein, Daniel S., Vincent Rubinetti, David R. Slochower, Dongbo Hu, Venkat S. Malladi, Casey S. Greene, and Anthony Gitter. 2019. “Open Collaborative Writing with Manubot.” PLOS Computational Biology 15(6): e1007128. DOI:

Hoffmann, R. 2008. “A Wiki for the Life Sciences Where Authorship Matters.” Nature Genetics 40: 1047–51 DOI:

Holcombe, Alex O. 2019. “Contributorship, Not Authorship: Use CRediT to Indicate Who Did What.” Preprint, submitted April 18, 2019. PsyArXiv. DOI:

Hsiehchen, David, Magdalena Espinoza, and Antony Hsieh. 2015. “Multinational Teams and Diseconomies of Scale in Collaborative Research.” Science Advances 1(8): e1500211. DOI:

Katz, Daniel S., Lois Curfman McInnes, David E. Bernholdt, Abigail Cabunoc Mayes, Neil P. Chue Hong, Jonah Duckles, Sandra Gesing, et al. 2018. “Community Organizations: Changing the Culture in Which Research Software Is Developed and Sustained.” Preprint, submitted November 20.

Lakens, Daniël, Anne M. Scheel, and Peder M. Isager. 2018. “Equivalence Testing for Psychological Research: A Tutorial.” Advances in Methods and Practices in Psychological Science 1(2): 259–69. DOI:

Lurie, Daniel, Daniel Kessler, Danielle Bassett, Richard F. Betzel, Prof Michael Breakspear, Shella Keilholz, Aaron Kucyi, et al. “TVWG Resting TVC Review.” Working paper, Time Varying Working Group. July 2018. DOI:

Moscovici, Serge, and Marisa, Zavalloni. 1969. “The Group as a Polarizer of Attitudes.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 12(2): 125–35. DOI:

Raymond, Eric S. 2001. The Cathedral and the Bazaar: Musings on Linux and Open Source by an Accidental Revolutionary. Cambridge, MA: O’Reilly Media, Inc.

Sarabipour, Sarvenaz, Humberto J. Debat, Edward Emmott, Steven J. Burgess, Benjamin Schwessinger, and Zach Hensel. 2019. “On the Value of Preprints: An Early Career Researcher Perspective.” PLOS Biology 17(2): e3000151. DOI:

Tennant, Jonathan, Jennifer Elizabeth Beamer, Jeroen Bosman, Björn Brembs, Neo Christopher Chung, Gail Clement, Tom Crick, et al. 2019a. “Foundations for Open Scholarship Strategy Development.” Preprint, submitted January 30. DOI:

Tennant, Jonathan P., Bruce Becker, Tanja de Bie, Julien Colomb, Valentina Goglio, Ivo Grigorov, Chris Hartgerink, et al. 2019b. “What Collaboration Means to Us: We Are More Powerful When We Work Together as a Community to Solve Problems.” Collaborative Librarianship 11(2) Available at:

Tennant, Jonathan P., Ritwik Agarwal, Ksenija Baždarić, David Brassard, Tom Crick, Daniel Dunleavy, Thomas Evans, et al. 2020. “A Tale of Two ‘Opens’: Intersections between Free and Open Source Software and Open Scholarship.” SocArXiv. DOI:

Tietze, Susanne, and Penny Dick. 2013. “The Victorious English Language: Hegemonic Practices in the Management Academy.” Journal of Management Inquiry 22(1): 122–34. DOI:

van den Broek, Tijs, and Anne F. van Veenstra. 2015. “Modes of Governance in Inter-Organizational Data Collaborations.” ECIS2015 Completed Research Papers. Paper 188. ISBN 978-3-00-050284-2. DOI:

Vicens, Quentin, and Philip E. Bourne. 2007. “Ten Simple Rules for a Successful Collaboration.” PLOS Computational Biology 3(3): e44. DOI:

Weinberger, Cody J., James A. Evans, and Stefano Allesina. 2015. “Ten Simple (Empirical) Rules for Writing Science.” PLOS Computational Biology 11(4): e1004205. DOI:

Willinsky, John. 2005. “The Unacknowledged Convergence of Open Source, Open Access, and Open Science.” First Monday 10(8). DOI:




How to Cite

Tennant, Jonathan P., Natalia Bielczyk, Bastian Greshake Tzovaras, Paola Masuzzo, and Tobias Steiner. 2020. “Introducing Massively Open Online Papers (MOOPs)”. KULA: Knowledge Creation, Dissemination, and Preservation Studies 4 (1):1.



Methods Articles

Similar Articles

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 > >> 

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.