Structure and Formatting

Submissions should be double spaced and use a 12-point font. 

Abstract

Each submission should include an abstract summarizing the article’s main points. Please place this paragraph after the title page and include the heading “Abstract.” Abstracts should be a maximum of 300 words. 

Keywords

Authors may also add up to six keywords to describe their submission. The keywords should appear after the abstract in the document. 

Main Text and Headings

The main text of the submission should be clearly and logically organized. Section headings are recommended. Authors should clearly format different level headings with font size, bold, or italics (avoid underlining).

Use headline-style capitalization for submission title and all headings within the main text (as well as titles in the running text).

Capitalize the first and last words in titles and subtitles.

Capitalize all nouns, pronouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs, phrasal verbs (e.g., Turn On, Stand By), subordinating conjunctions (e.g., because, although), and prepositions over four letters (e.g., despite, toward, during).

Do not capitalize articles, coordinating conjunctions, and short prepositions (e.g., at, by, from, into, to, etc.).  “To” should also be lowercase when used as part of an infinitive (e.g., “to Be”). Make sure to capitalize “be,” “is,” and “it.”

In hyphenated compounds, capitalize the first element and the following element(s) unless they are articles, prepositions, or coordinating conjunctions. If the first word in a hyphenated term is a prefix (e.g., pre, anti), do not capitalize any elements that follow unless they are proper nouns or proper adjectives. Capitalize all words in a hyphenated compound if they are spelled-out numbers (e.g., twenty-first).

Acknowledgments 

Acknowledgments should appear in a separate paragraph after the main text but before the reference list. If research for the submission received grant funding, the grant provider and grant number should be identified. 

Conflicts of Interest 

Author(s) must declare if they have any conflicts of interest that might affect the objectivity of their work or that readers might consider as possibly compromising authorial objectivity.  Conflicts of interest include, but are not limited to, receipt of payment from an organization or person related to the subject of the author’s work; receipt of grants, funding, or gifts; ownership of stocks or shares in organizations directly related to the author’s work; applications for patents; relevant board memberships; close relationships; and political, religious, or ideological interests. This statement should appear in a paragraph after the acknowledgments (if there are any) and before the reference list. If there are no competing interests, please add a version of this statement: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.”

Ethics and Consent

If applicable, authors should include a statement explaining the process they undertook to receive ethics approval. They should include the name of the ethics committee and, if applicable, the reference number of the approval. For research involving human subjects, informed consent to participate in the study must be obtained from participants (or their legal guardian). Research subjects should be anonymized as much as possible in articles. This section should appear before the reference list.

Figures and Tables

Figures 

All figures must be cited within the main text using Arabic numerals (e.g., Figure 1, Figure 2, etc.). The citation should come after the first reference to the content of the figure.

Figures should be embedded in the manuscript, ideally after the paragraph of their first citation.

Each figure must be accompanied by a descriptive caption that clearly and concisely summarizes its content and significance. The source of the image should be included, along with any relevant copyright information and a statement of permission (“Courtesy of . . .” for free illustrations and “By permission of . . .” if payment was required). Authors are responsible for securing permission to publish any copyrighted material.

If a figure includes text, please present the font as Ariel, Helvetica, or Verdana so that it matches the typeset text.

All figures must be uploaded separately as supplementary files during the submission process, if possible in colour and at a resolution of at least 300dpi. Each file should not be more than 20MB. Standard formats accepted are: JPG, TIFF, GIF, PNG, EPS.

Tables

All tables must be cited within the main text using Arabic numerals (e.g., Table 1, Table 2, etc.). The citation should come after the first reference to the content of the table.

Tables should be embedded in the manuscript. The final layout will place the tables as close to their first citation as possible.

Each table must be accompanied by a descriptive caption that clearly and concisely summarizes its content and significance.

Tables should be created using a word processor's table function.

Tables should not include rotated text, colour, images, or vertical/diagonal lines.